Causes of teen marriage
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Early Teen Marriage and Future Poverty
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During the s, nearly 12 percent of teen girls between the mariage of 15 and 19 years old were married. This number increased to over 17 percent by the s. A study found that It also became the tradition to the first generation. Legal aspect[ edit ] In the Siriono culture of South America, a girl may marry before she reaches puberty. The Murmuring boy of Australia might marry for the first time when his beard begins to appear.
Marriage Causes of teen
Thirty-eight percent marry tefn their twenties, and 10 percent marry when they are 30 years of age. Ayer Scientists and psychologists made a discovery in that in traditional societies, boys and girls geen usually begun to do serious work well before they reach puberty. Girls are often doing womanly work at a certain age: Some girls have to do these chores at an even earlier age like three or four. Boys on the other hand, learn how to farm, herd, and hunt before they reach manhood. Some mothers and fathers attempt to let their children to choose their potential loved ones.
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Parents who fail to marry a child at the proper age are thought to be neglecting their responsibilities. In comparison, the ordinary least squares OLS estimates are very sensitive to how the data is aggregated, particularly for the early marriage variable. OLS estimates using grouped data are also large, while OLS estimates using individual-level data indicate a small effect for early teen marriage. Auxiliary data indicate a large amount of measurement error in the early marriage variable, suggesting the presence of attenuation bias in the individual-level OLS estimates.
The remainder of the article proceeds as follows.
I first briefly review the negative outcomes associated with teenage marriage and dropping out of school and discuss alternative perspectives on why teens might make these decisions. The following section describes the data and presents OLS estimates. The next section discusses the early marriage, compulsory schooling, and child labor laws that will be used as instruments. I then present the instrumental variable estimates and conduct several specification and robustness checks, including a discussion of measurement error issues and a reconciliation with the literature on teenage childbearing. Women who marry while in their teens are two-thirds more likely to divorce within 15 years of their wedding compared with women who postpone marriage.
In addition, Causes of teen marriage who marry in their teens tend to have more children and to have those children earlier. There is an even larger literature documenting the negative outcomes associated with low education, including lower wages and higher unemployment rates Katz and Autorworse health Berger and Leigh ; Lleras-Muneyand higher crime rates Lochner and Moretti The negative outcomes associated with early marriage and dropping out of high school have the potential to affect not only the individual making the decision but also her children and the rest of society. For example, a high divorce rate combined with low wages and a larger family size increases the number of children living in poverty and receiving state assistance Bane ; Moffit Children of teenage mothers also have lower birth weights, have a higher rate of infant homicide, are often the victims of child abuse and neglect, have academic and behavioral problems in school, and are more likely to engage in crime Goerge and Lee ; Overpeck et al.
Given these negative outcomes, why would an individual choose to marry young or drop out of high school? Traditional economic analysis focuses on rational and forward-looking individuals Becker ; Becker, Landes, and Michael A woman chooses whether to accept a teen marriage offer or drop out of school based on the relative attractiveness of her alternatives. In this paradigm, a young woman fully anticipates the future consequences of her decisions, subject to some uncertainty about how things will actually turn out. Women who marry early can have a high likelihood of ending up poor later in life, yet can still be optimizing.
However, even if the individual is optimizing, society might still be concerned about the effects of poverty on her children and the costs associated with transfer programs. An alternative perspective for why teens marry young is based on psychological and behavioral economic models. They argued that teens may not accurately compare short-run benefits versus long-run costs because teens discount the future too heavily. Two closely related explanations are that teens have time-inconsistent preferences or projection bias. These models provide an explanation for why teenagers engage in risky behavior, such as drinking, smoking, drug use, unprotected sex, and criminal activity, even though these behaviors can have substantial negative consequences in the long run Gruber Looking at schooling decisions, Oreopoulos argued that myopia helps explain why some teens drop out of school early.
The various psychological explanations for poor decision-making by youth generally share the feature that teens make choices they will later regret.
Although teen marriage and low education are associated with a variety of below-average outcomes, it is not necessarily true that these choices caused the bad outcomes. For example, differences may be due to preexisting characteristics of women who marry young versus later, rather than any causal relationship between teen marriage and negative adult outcomes. Not only is it perceived to be less expensive to marry children off while they are still young, but holding several marriages simultaneously is an even more effective way to save resources, reducing the expenditure that usually goes into arranging a wedding.
Lack of Alternatives Many parents do not find themselves in a position to support the girl child so she can pursue her schooling, and not many girls in areas where this practice is common have any careers to look forward to. Marriage is considered to be the ultimate goal of every girl and early marriage is seen as a way the girl can quickly adapt to family life and responsibilites. Lack of awareness of adverse health consequences Most parents and families practicing early marriage are unaware of the health risks that come with it. It may also lead to the birth of a weak child who frequently contracts infections. Lack of awareness of the law related to child marriage While the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, has made Child marriage a serious and punishable offense, awareness of the law, its clauses and implications is still severely limited Lack of political commitment The involvement of the local political community in the organisation and implementation of child marriages at the local level makes ending the practice an uphill task as these politicians are more likely to be assured the vote of the communities they govern over.
Pressure of society and relatives Neighbours, relatives, grandparents, all can influence parents into getting their children married. Parents can find it difficult to resist such pressures.